V陆风X8(虚拟现实)开发财富汇总

叁 、bluetoothctl——NB的新工具

一声令下行进入bluetoothctl操作环境([\#6](https://mcuoneclipse.com/2016/12/19/tutorial-ble-pairing-the-raspberry-pi-3-model-b-with-hexiwear/))

bluetoothctl

本身在小叔子大上用lightblue模拟1个BLE设备ty_prod,之后对其service举行修改,调用scan
on进行检索仍旧老的,
最终发现要先用remove移除此前的设施,之后再scan就会冒出[NEW] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F ty_prod设备
注: 用lightblue模拟的配备的MAC不是永恒的
注:
笔者发觉在lightblue中不管怎么模拟BLE设备,一旦被连上搜索到的service都以IPone的

[bluetooth]# devices
Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ty_prod
Device 58:71:33:00:00:24 Bluetooth Keyboard
Device 00:1A:7D:DA:71:0A SHEN-PC
Device 94:87:E0:B3:AC:6F Mi Phone
[bluetooth]# remove 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 
...
[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[NEW] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F ty_prod
[bluetooth]# scan off
...
Discovery stopped
[bluetooth]# connect 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F
Attempting to connect to 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F
[CHG] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F Connected: yes
Connection successful
[ty_prod]

干脆就用苹果手提式有线电话机自带的服务做测试了~

[ty_prod]# info
Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 (public)
    Name: tuya_mdev_test
    Alias: tuya_mdev_test
    Appearance: 0x0040
    Icon: phone
    Paired: yes
    Trusted: no
    Blocked: no
    Connected: yes
    LegacyPairing: no
    UUID: Fax                       (00001111-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Generic Access Profile    (00001800-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Generic Attribute Profile (00001801-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Current Time Service      (00001805-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Device Information        (0000180a-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Battery Service           (0000180f-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (7905f431-b5ce-4e99-a40f-4b1e122d00d0)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (89d3502b-0f36-433a-8ef4-c502ad55f8dc)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (9fa480e0-4967-4542-9390-d343dc5d04ae)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (d0611e78-bbb4-4591-a5f8-487910ae4366)
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ServicesResolved: no
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 Connected: no

咱俩用Current Time Service,列出装有attributes操作如下:

[tuya_mdev_test]# menu gatt
[tuya_mdev_test]# list-attributes 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
...
Primary Service
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041
    00001805-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Current Time Service
Characteristic
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0045
    00002a0f-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Local Time Information
Characteristic
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
    00002a2b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Current Time
Descriptor
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042/desc0044
    00002902-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Client Characteristic Configuration
...

上面Current Time Service相应的服务如下图:

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大家挑选Current Time进行操作UUID:0x2A2B

[ty_prod]# select-attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0041/char0042]# read
Attempting to read /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
[CHG] Attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042 Value:
  e2 07 09 05 01 24 11 03 f1 02                    .....$....      
  e2 07 09 05 01 24 11 03 f1 02                    .....$.... 
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0041/char0042]# attribute-info
Characteristic - Current Time
    UUID: 00002a2b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Service: /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041
    Value:
  e2 07 09 05 01 2e 01 03 f5 02                    ..........      
    Notifying: yes
    Flags: read
    Flags: notify

读出结果大致意思应该是:2018-9/5-1:36:17 周三

读取一下0x180A的Device Information:

[tuya_mdev_test:/service0006/char0007]# select-attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# attribute-info
Characteristic - Model Number String
    UUID: 00002a24-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Service: /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047
    Flags: read
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# read
Attempting to read /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a
[CHG] Attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a Value:
  69 50 68 6f 6e 65 36 2c 32                       iPhone6,2       
  69 50 68 6f 6e 65 36 2c 32                       iPhone6,2    

理所当然写、使能notify也相当粗略,看help即可。最终断开连接、并脱离!!!

[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# disconnect 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
Attempting to disconnect from 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ServicesResolved: no
Successful disconnected
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 Connected: no
[bluetooth]# quit

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How do I
fix my Daydream
controller

7.作为GATTclient或GATT服务端

Roles and Responsibilities

LINKS

[1].Cannot connect to BLE device on Raspberry
Pi
[2].Invalid file descriptor gatttool of bluez
5.32
[3].Get Started with Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux
[4].Reverse Engineering a Bluetooth Low Energy Light
Bulb
[5].Doing Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux
[6].Tutorial: BLE Pairing the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B with
Hexiwear

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@beautifulzzzz
智能硬件、物联网,热爱技术,关注产品
博客:http://blog.beautifulzzzz.com
园友交流群:414948975

Latency

2.为配对的蓝牙( Bluetooth® )设备查询当地蓝牙( Bluetooth® )适配器

Connecting to a GATT Server

连接GATT服务器

The first step in interacting with a BLE device is connecting to it—
more specifically, connecting to the GATT server on the device. To
connect to a GATT server on a BLE device, you use the connectGatt()
method. This method takes three parameters: a Context object,
autoConnect (boolean indicating whether to automatically connect to the
BLE device as soon as it becomes available), and a reference to a
BluetoothGattCallback:
与BLE设备的相互的率先步是连接受它-更具象的说,连接在那么些BLE设备上的GATT服务器。为了连接上在这些BLE设备上的GATT服务器,你能够动用connectGatt()方法。那一个艺术有四个参数:多少个上下文对象,是不是自动连接(一个布尔值,申明只要这么些BLE设备是足以获得的,是或不是自动的三番五次上它),贰个指向BluetoothGattCallback的引用。

mBluetoothGatt = device.connectGatt(this, false, mGattCallback);

This connects to the GATT server hosted by the BLE device, and returns a
BluetoothGatt instance, which you can then use to conduct GATT client
operations. The caller (the Android app) is the GATT client. The
BluetoothGattCallback is used to deliver results to the client, such as
connection status, as well as any further GATT client operations.
那会连接受由BLE设备管理的GATT服务器,并回到多少个蓝牙Gatt实例,然后你能够采纳它来拓展GATT客户端操作。调用者(Android
app)是GATT客户端。蓝牙5.0( Bluetooth® )GattCallback用来传送结果给客户端,例如连接景况,以及其余进一步的GATT客户端操作。

In this example, the BLE app provides an activity
(DeviceControlActivity) to connect, display data, and display GATT
services and characteristics supported by the device. Based on user
input, this activity communicates with a Service called
BluetoothLeService, which interacts with the BLE device via the Android
BLE API:
这几个事例中,那几个BLE应用提供七个运动(DeviceControlActivity)用于连接装置,展现由装备提供的数码,GATT服务和特色。基于用户输入,那么些运动与3个名为Bluetooth( Bluetooth® )LeService的服务通信,该服务通过Android
BLE API与BLE设备开始展览互动:

// A service that interacts with the BLE device via the Android BLE API.
public class BluetoothLeService extends Service {
    private final static String TAG = BluetoothLeService.class.getSimpleName();

    private BluetoothManager mBluetoothManager;
    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private String mBluetoothDeviceAddress;
    private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
    private int mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;

    private static final int STATE_DISCONNECTED = 0;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTING = 1;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTED = 2;

    public final static String ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED";
    public final static String ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE";
    public final static String EXTRA_DATA =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.EXTRA_DATA";

    public final static UUID UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT =
            UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT);

    // Various callback methods defined by the BLE API.
    private final BluetoothGattCallback mGattCallback =
            new BluetoothGattCallback() {
        @Override
        public void onConnectionStateChange(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status,
                int newState) {
            String intentAction;
            if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_CONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTED;
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
                Log.i(TAG, "Connected to GATT server.");
                Log.i(TAG, "Attempting to start service discovery:" +
                        mBluetoothGatt.discoverServices());

            } else if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_DISCONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;
                Log.i(TAG, "Disconnected from GATT server.");
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
            }
        }

        @Override
        // New services discovered
        public void onServicesDiscovered(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED);
            } else {
                Log.w(TAG, "onServicesDiscovered received: " + status);
            }
        }

        @Override
        // Result of a characteristic read operation
        public void onCharacteristicRead(BluetoothGatt gatt,
                BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
                int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
            }
        }
     ...
    };
...
}

When a particular callback is triggered, it calls the appropriate
broadcastUpdate() helper method and passes it an action. Note that the
data parsing in this section is performed in accordance with the
Bluetooth Heart Rate Measurement profile specifications:
当特定的回调被触发时,它调用相应的broadcastUpdate()协理方法并传递三个动作。请留意,本节中的数据解析是依据蓝牙( Bluetooth® )心率度量配置文件规范实施的:

private void broadcastUpdate(final String action) {
    final Intent intent = new Intent(action);
    sendBroadcast(intent);
}

private void broadcastUpdate(final String action,
                             final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
    final Intent intent = new Intent(action);

    // This is special handling for the Heart Rate Measurement profile. Data
    // parsing is carried out as per profile specifications.
    if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
        int flag = characteristic.getProperties();
        int format = -1;
        if ((flag & 0x01) != 0) {
            format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT16;
            Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT16.");
        } else {
            format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT8;
            Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT8.");
        }
        final int heartRate = characteristic.getIntValue(format, 1);
        Log.d(TAG, String.format("Received heart rate: %d", heartRate));
        intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, String.valueOf(heartRate));
    } else {
        // For all other profiles, writes the data formatted in HEX.
        final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();
        if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
            final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
            for(byte byteChar : data)
                stringBuilder.append(String.format("%02X ", byteChar));
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data) + "\n" +
                    stringBuilder.toString());
        }
    }
    sendBroadcast(intent);
}

Back in DeviceControlActivity, these events are handled by a
BroadcastReceiver:
重回DeviceControlActivity,那几个事件都被1个BroadcastReceiver接收处理:

// Handles various events fired by the Service.
// ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED: connected to a GATT server.
// ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED: disconnected from a GATT server.
// ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED: discovered GATT services.
// ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE: received data from the device. This can be a
// result of read or notification operations.
private final BroadcastReceiver mGattUpdateReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {
    @Override
    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        final String action = intent.getAction();
        if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED.equals(action)) {
            mConnected = true;
            updateConnectionState(R.string.connected);
            invalidateOptionsMenu();
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED.equals(action)) {
            mConnected = false;
            updateConnectionState(R.string.disconnected);
            invalidateOptionsMenu();
            clearUI();
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.
                ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED.equals(action)) {
            // Show all the supported services and characteristics on the
            // user interface.
            displayGattServices(mBluetoothLeService.getSupportedGattServices());
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE.equals(action)) {
            displayData(intent.getStringExtra(BluetoothLeService.EXTRA_DATA));
        }
    }
};

1、前言

上一篇讲了怎么编写翻译安装BlueZ-5,本篇首要在于玩BlueZ,用命令行去操作BLE设备:

  • [BlueZ] 1、Download install and use the BlueZ and hcitool on PI
    3B+

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Conversion
Euler to
Quaternion

提供管理蓝牙5.0作用的类,比如对设备的围观,连接装置,和管理设施之间的传输数据。BluetoothAPI协助经典蓝牙( Bluetooth® )和低耗能蓝牙( Bluetooth® )。

Setting Up BLE

设置BLE
Before your application can communicate over BLE, you need to verify
that BLE is supported on the device, and if so, ensure that it is
enabled. Note that this check is only necessary if
<uses-feature…/> is set to false.
在你选用能够由此BLE通讯以前,你供给注明这么些装置是或不是援助BLE,尽管能够,确认BLE是使能的。须要专注的是唯有当<uses-feature…/>设置为false这些是反省须要的

If BLE is not supported, then you should gracefully disable any BLE
features. If BLE is supported, but disabled, then you can request that
the user enable Bluetooth without leaving your application. This setup
is accomplished in two steps, using the BluetoothAdapter.
要是BLE不被帮忙,则你必要优雅的除能全体的BLE特性。倘诺BLE被援助,但是被除能了,则你须求请求用户使能Bluetooth而不偏离的运用。该装置使用Bluetooth艾达pter在四个步骤中成功。

  1. Get the BluetoothAdapter
    获取BluetoothAdapter
    The BluetoothAdapter is required for any and all Bluetooth activity.
    The BluetoothAdapter represents the device’s own Bluetooth adapter
    (the Bluetooth radio). There’s one Bluetooth adapter for the entire
    system, and your application can interact with it using this object.
    The snippet below shows how to get the adapter. Note that this
    approach uses getSystemService() to return an instance of
    BluetoothManager, which is then used to get the adapter. Android 4.3
    (API Level 18) introduces BluetoothManager:
    具备的蓝牙( Bluetooth® )Activity中都必要蓝牙( Bluetooth® )适配器。蓝牙5.0适配器表示了那么些装置自带的蓝牙5.0适配器(Bluetooth有线电)。整个系统有贰个蓝牙5.0适配器,你的选用能够由此这些目的和它交互。上面包车型客车代码片段呈现了哪些得到那么些适配器。要求留意的是以此办法应用getSystemService()去赢得蓝牙5.0Manager的三个实例,然后用于获取适配器。Android
    4.3(API Level 18)介绍了蓝牙( Bluetooth® )Manager。

    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    ...
    // Initializes Bluetooth adapter.
    final BluetoothManager bluetoothManager =
            (BluetoothManager) getSystemService(Context.BLUETOOTH_SERVICE);
    mBluetoothAdapter = bluetoothManager.getAdapter();
    
  2. Enable Bluetooth
    使能Bluetooth
    Next, you need to ensure that Bluetooth is enabled. Call isEnabled()
    to check whether Bluetooth is currently enabled. If this method
    returns false, then Bluetooth is disabled. The following snippet
    checks whether Bluetooth is enabled. If it isn’t, the snippet
    displays an error prompting the user to go to Settings to enable
    Bluetooth:
    接下去,你需求承认Bluetooth是使能的。调用isEnable()去反省是或不是Bluetooth当下是或不是使能。假使那么些艺术再次来到false,则蓝牙5.0是除能的。接下来的代码片段检查是还是不是蓝牙5.0是是能的。假设没有使能,代码片段会显得四个用户去设置开启蓝牙5.0的失实提示。

    // Ensures Bluetooth is available on the device and it is enabled. If not,
    // displays a dialog requesting user permission to enable Bluetooth.
    if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || !mBluetoothAdapter.isEnabled()) {
        Intent enableBtIntent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE);
        startActivityForResult(enableBtIntent, REQUEST_ENABLE_BT);
    }
    

Note: The REQUEST_ENABLE_BT constant passed to
startActivityForResult(android.content.Intent, int) is a
locally-defined integer (which must be greater than 0) that the system
passes back to you in your onActivityResult(int, int,
android.content.Intent) implementation as the requestCode parameter.

注意:传送给startActivityForResult()的常量REQUEST_ENABLE_BT是3个本地定义的平头(必须大于0),那一个平头系统会达成为requestCode参数,在你的onActivityResult()方法中,回传给您。

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Bluetooth

至于很多其余的经文蓝牙5.0新闻。能够看蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )指南。有关很多任何的低功耗蓝牙5.0的新闻,能够看BLE指南。

Reading BLE Attributes

读取BLE属性

Once your Android app has connected to a GATT server and discovered
services, it can read and write attributes, where supported. For
example, this snippet iterates through the server’s services and
characteristics and displays them in the UI:
若是您的Android应用连接到GATT服务器并发现了服务,假若GATT服务器援助,它就可以读取和写入属性了。例如:这一片段代码遍历了那些服务器的劳动和天性,,并将其出示在UI中:

public class DeviceControlActivity extends Activity {
    ...
    // Demonstrates how to iterate through the supported GATT
    // Services/Characteristics.
    // In this sample, we populate the data structure that is bound to the
    // ExpandableListView on the UI.
    private void displayGattServices(List<BluetoothGattService> gattServices) {
        if (gattServices == null) return;
        String uuid = null;
        String unknownServiceString = getResources().
                getString(R.string.unknown_service);
        String unknownCharaString = getResources().
                getString(R.string.unknown_characteristic);
        ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattServiceData =
                new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
        ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>> gattCharacteristicData
                = new ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>>();
        mGattCharacteristics =
                new ArrayList<ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>>();

        // Loops through available GATT Services.
        for (BluetoothGattService gattService : gattServices) {
            HashMap<String, String> currentServiceData =
                    new HashMap<String, String>();
            uuid = gattService.getUuid().toString();
            currentServiceData.put(
                    LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.
                            lookup(uuid, unknownServiceString));
            currentServiceData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
            gattServiceData.add(currentServiceData);

            ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattCharacteristicGroupData =
                    new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
            List<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> gattCharacteristics =
                    gattService.getCharacteristics();
            ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> charas =
                    new ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>();
           // Loops through available Characteristics.
            for (BluetoothGattCharacteristic gattCharacteristic :
                    gattCharacteristics) {
                charas.add(gattCharacteristic);
                HashMap<String, String> currentCharaData =
                        new HashMap<String, String>();
                uuid = gattCharacteristic.getUuid().toString();
                currentCharaData.put(
                        LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.lookup(uuid,
                                unknownCharaString));
                currentCharaData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
                gattCharacteristicGroupData.add(currentCharaData);
            }
            mGattCharacteristics.add(charas);
            gattCharacteristicData.add(gattCharacteristicGroupData);
         }
    ...
    }
...
}

77365bet体育在线投注,星期三, 05. 九月 2018 02:03上午 – beautifulzzzz

 

The Bluetooth APIs let applications:

接收GATT通知

It’s common for BLE apps to ask to be notified when a particular
characteristic changes on the device. This snippet shows how to set a
notification for a characteristic, using the
setCharacteristicNotification() method:
当设备上一个特定的特色发生转移时,BLE应用去供给被通告很广泛。那段代码展示了什么样通过利用setCharacteristicNotification()方法,去为1个表征设置一个布告:

private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic;
boolean enabled;
...
mBluetoothGatt.setCharacteristicNotification(characteristic, enabled);
...
BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor = characteristic.getDescriptor(
        UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.CLIENT_CHARACTERISTIC_CONFIG));
descriptor.setValue(BluetoothGattDescriptor.ENABLE_NOTIFICATION_VALUE);
mBluetoothGatt.writeDescriptor(descriptor);

Once notifications are enabled for a characteristic, an
onCharacteristicChanged() callback is triggered if the characteristic
changes on the remote device:
只要七个风味被使能文告,假设远程设备上的这一个特点发生了改变,三个onCharacteristicChanged()回调被触发。

@Override
// Characteristic notification
public void onCharacteristicChanged(BluetoothGatt gatt,
        BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
    broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
}

二 、gatttool —— 老工具趟坑

刚开始跟着 Get Started with Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux
操作gatttool,发现坑太多(主因是工具老了):

采用sudo gatttool -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I去连接
365bet日博官网,察觉会报错:Error: connect error: Connection refused (111)
说到底参考LINK-11发现供给加random选项([\#1](https://stackoverflow.com/questions/32947807/cannot-connect-to-ble-device-on-raspberry-pi))

➜  ~  sudo gatttool -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E
Error: connect error: Connection refused (111)
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> exit
➜  ~  sudo gatttool  -t random  -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E
Connection successful
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> 
(gatttool:3104): GLib-WARNING **: Invalid file descriptor.

过三次会10S机关断开,网上说那么些工具老了,不提出用了([\#2](https://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-bluetooth/msg67617.html)):

There are new tools to use with GATT, bluetoothctl/bluetoothd is the preferred since with that you have GAP, etc, 
but if want to use a stand alone tool then I suggest you use btgatt-client.

365bet日博官网 6

Unity3d
Quaternion

6.与BLE设备沟通。比如类似传感器,心率监视器,健身设备,等等

Receiving GATT Notifications

Virtual
Reality High
Performance

使用这么些APIs来收尾蓝牙( Bluetooth® )之间的交换,二个应用程序必须申明BLUETOOTH权限。对于有些十三分的效益。如请求设备发现,也务必BLUETOOTH_ADMIN权限。

角色和天职

Here are the roles and responsibilities that apply when an Android
device interacts with a BLE device:
此处是Android设备与BLE设备交互时适用的角色和天职:

  • Central vs. peripheral. This applies to the BLE connection itself.
    The device in the central role scans, looking for advertisement, and
    the device in the peripheral role makes the advertisement.
    主旨和外设。那适用于BLE连接本身。中心设备剧中人物扫描,寻找广告,同时外剧中人物设备创造广告。

  • GATT server vs. GATT client. This determines how two devices talk to
    each other once they’ve established the connection.
    GATT服务器和GATT客户端。那决定了多少个设备建立连接之后如何通讯。

To understand the distinction, imagine that you have an Android phone
and an activity tracker that is a BLE device. The phone supports the
central role; the activity tracker supports the peripheral role (to
establish a BLE connection you need one of each—two things that only
support peripheral couldn’t talk to each other, nor could two things
that only support central).
为了精晓那个天性,假如你抱有一个Android手提式有线电话机和一个BLE活动追踪器设备。手提式有线电电话机担任中心剧中人物;活动追踪器担任外设角色(为了树立BLE连接,你需求部分的这样的设备。只帮忙外设角色的多少个装备无法相互通讯,同样,仅扶助宗旨剧中人物的多少个设备也不能够相互通信)

Once the phone and the activity tracker have established a connection,
they start transferring GATT metadata to one another. Depending on the
kind of data they transfer, one or the other might act as the server.
For example, if the activity tracker wants to report sensor data to the
phone, it might make sense for the activity tracker to act as the
server. If the activity tracker wants to receive updates from the phone,
then it might make sense for the phone to act as the server.
手提式有线电话机和平运动动追踪器一旦创立了连年,他们就从头互相传输GATT元数据。信赖于他们传输的多少,在这之中的1个发端出任服务器。例如:假若移动跟踪器希望将传感器数据报告给手提式有线电话机,那么活动跟踪器只怕会担任服务器。怎样运动追踪器想要从手提式有线电话机械收割到更新,那么手提式有线电话机大概会担任服务器。

In the example used in this document, the Android app (running on an
Android device) is the GATT client. The app gets data from the GATT
server, which is a BLE heart rate monitor that supports the Heart Rate
Profile. But you could alternatively design your Android app to play the
GATT server role. See BluetoothGattServer for more information.
那几个文档中使用的事例中,Android
APP(运维在Android设备上)是GATT客户端。App从2个GATT服务器中获取数据,GATT服务器是一个提供心跳配置文件的BLE心跳检查和测试器。可是你也得以陈设你的安卓App充当GATT服务器的角色。有关详细音信,请查看蓝牙5.0GattServer。

Bluetooth Core
Specification

Finding BLE Devices

寻找BLE设备

To find BLE devices, you use the startLeScan() method. This method takes
a BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback as a parameter. You must implement
this callback, because that is how scan results are returned. Because
scanning is battery-intensive, you should observe the following
guidelines:
要物色BLE设备,你能够选拔startLeScan()方法。那些方法包蕴3个BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback作为参数。你无法不要兑现这些回调,因为那是如何回到扫描结果的(因为扫描结果是因此那些再次来到的)。因为扫描是电池密集型的,你须要服从以下的规则:

  • As soon as you find the desired device, stop scanning.
    比方您一找到了想要的设施,就告一段落扫描
  • Never scan on a loop, and set a time limit on your scan. A device
    that was previously available may have moved out of range, and
    continuing to scan drains the battery.
    切勿在循环里扫描,且要设置八个扫描时限。
    四个事先可以收获的设施也许已经移出了限定,持续围观消功耗池。

The following snippet shows how to start and stop a scan:
下边包车型大巴代码片段展现了怎么初步和终止扫描:

/**
 * Activity for scanning and displaying available BLE devices.
 */
public class DeviceScanActivity extends ListActivity {

    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private boolean mScanning;
    private Handler mHandler;

    // Stops scanning after 10 seconds.
    private static final long SCAN_PERIOD = 10000;
    ...
    private void scanLeDevice(final boolean enable) {
        if (enable) {
            // Stops scanning after a pre-defined scan period.
            mHandler.postDelayed(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    mScanning = false;
                    mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
                }
            }, SCAN_PERIOD);

            mScanning = true;
            mBluetoothAdapter.startLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
        } else {
            mScanning = false;
            mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
        }
        ...
    }
...
}

If you want to scan for only specific types of peripherals, you can
instead call startLeScan(UUID[], BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback),
providing an array of UUID objects that specify the GATT services your
app supports.
假使您想扫描特定项指标外设,你能够轮换调用startLeScan(UUID[],
Bluetooth( Bluetooth® )Adapter.LeScanCallback),提供叁个一定的您的app扶助的GATT服务UUID设备数组。

Here is an implementation of the BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback, which
is the interface used to deliver BLE scan results:
此间有三个BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback的兑现,它是二个接口,用来传输BLE扫描结果:

private LeDeviceListAdapter mLeDeviceListAdapter;
...
// Device scan callback.
private BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback mLeScanCallback =
        new BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback() {
    @Override
    public void onLeScan(final BluetoothDevice device, int rssi,
            byte[] scanRecord) {
        runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
           @Override
           public void run() {
               mLeDeviceListAdapter.addDevice(device);
               mLeDeviceListAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
           }
       });
   }
};

Note: You can only scan for Bluetooth LE devices or scan for Classic
Bluetooth devices, as described in Bluetooth. You cannot scan for both
Bluetooth LE and classic devices at the same time.

留意:你能够扫描低功耗蓝牙( Bluetooth® )设备或经典Bluetooth设备,如蓝牙5.0所述。你不可能同时扫视低耗电蓝牙5.0设备和经文Bluetooth设备。

Difference_between_ATW_ASW_and_Reprojection 

Provides classes that manage Bluetooth functionality, such as scanning
for devices, connecting with devices, and managing data transfer between
devices. The Bluetooth API supports both “Classic Bluetooth” and
Bluetooth Low Energy.

Key Terms And Concepts

 

android.bluttooth

BLE 权限


In order to use Bluetooth features in your application, you must declare
the Bluetooth permission BLUETOOTH. You need this permission to perform
any Bluetooth communication, such as requesting a connection, accepting
a connection, and transferring data.
为了在你的使用中使用蓝牙( Bluetooth® )风味,你不能够不要表达Bluetooth权限 BLUETOOTH
。你要此权限才能执行此外Bluetooth通讯,如:请求一个总是,接收3个总是,和传输数据。

If you want your app to initiate device discovery or manipulate
Bluetooth settings, you must also declare the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN
permission. Note: If you use the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN permission, then you
must also have the BLUETOOTH permission.
若果你想要你的app运营设备发现或控制Bluetooth设置,你必须也要申明BLUETOOTH_ADMIN 权限。注意:如若您用了 BLUETOOTH_ADMIN
权限,则还非得有 BLUETOOTH 权限。

Declare the Bluetooth permission(s) in your application manifest file.
For example:
声称蓝牙( Bluetooth® )权限在您的使用manifest文件,例如:

<uses-permission android:name=”android.permission.BLUETOOTH”/>
<uses-permission
android:name=”android.permission.BLUETOOTH_ADMIN”/>

If you want to declare that your app is available to BLE-capable devices
only, include the following in your app’s manifest:
要是您想要评释你的app仅支持有BLE功效的设备,在你的app的manifest中填上如下内容:

<uses-feature android:name=”android.hardware.bluetooth_le”
android:required=”true”/>
However, if you want to make your app available to devices that don’t
support BLE, you should still include this element in your app’s
manifest, but set required=”false”. Then at run-time you can determine
BLE availability by using PackageManager.hasSystemFeature():
下一场,借使您想要你的app能够被不支持BLE的装置得到,你依旧亟待包括这几个成分在你的app的manifest文件中,可是,须要设置required为false。然后在您的代码运维时,你能够透过动用确认PackageManager.hasSystemFeature()方法来认同BLE是还是不是可拿到。

// Use this check to determine whether BLE is supported on the device. Then
// you can selectively disable BLE-related features.
if (!getPackageManager().hasSystemFeature(PackageManager.FEATURE_BLUETOOTH_LE)) {
    Toast.makeText(this, R.string.ble_not_supported, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    finish();
}

Note: LE Beacons are often associated with location. In order to use
BluetoothLeScanner without a filter, you must request the user’s
permission by declaring either the ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION or
ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION permission in your app’s manifest file. Without
these permissions, scans won’t return any results.

在意:LE信标日常与岗位相关联。
为了在尚未过滤器的景观下行使蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )LeScanner,您必须经过表明应用程序的清单文件中的ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION或ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION权限来呼吁用户的权能。

Android
Lollipop: Bluetooth LE
Matures

5.与此外设备之间数据传输

重庆大学术语和定义

Here is a summary of key BLE terms and concepts:
以下是关于BLE的要害术语和定义的摘要

  • Generic Attribute Profile (GATT)—The GATT profile is a general
    specification for sending and receiving short pieces of data known
    as “attributes” over a BLE link. All current Low Energy application
    profiles are based on GATT.
    通用属性配置文件(GATT)–通用属性配置文件是贰个经过BLE链接发送或收受短小一些数据或被喻为“属性”的通用规范。当前享有的低耗电应用配置文件都基于GATT。

    • The Bluetooth SIG defines many profiles for Low Energy devices.
      A profile is a specification for how a device works in a
      particular application. Note that a device can implement more
      than one profile. For example, a device could contain a heart
      rate monitor and a battery level detector.
    • Bluetooth技术联盟为低功耗设备定义了诸多隶属文件。配置文件是多少个在一定应用中配备如何是好事的行业内部。请小心,三个装备得以兑现四个布局文件。例如:2个设施能够包括多少个心跳检查和测试器和贰个电量检测器
  • Attribute Protocol (ATT)—GATT is built on top of the Attribute
    Protocol (ATT). This is also referred to as GATT/ATT. ATT is
    optimized to run on BLE devices. To this end, it uses as few bytes
    as possible. Each attribute is uniquely identified by a Universally
    Unique Identifier (UUID), which is a standardized 128-bit format for
    a string ID used to uniquely identify information. The attributes
    transported by ATT are formatted as characteristics and services.
    性子协议(ATT)——GATT建立在品质协议(ATT)之上。那也被喻为GATT/ATT。ATT经过优化,可在BLE设备上运营。为此,它接纳尽只怕少的字节。每一个属性由通用唯一标识符(UUID)唯一标识,该标识符是用于唯一标识信息的口径128-bit格式的字符串ID。由ATT传输的习性被格式化为特征和服务

  • Characteristic—A characteristic contains a single value and 0-n
    descriptors that describe the characteristic’s value. A
    characteristic can be thought of as a type, analogous to a class.
    特点——二个表征包罗三个值和0至三个描述特征的讲述符。一个特点能够被认为是一连串型,类似于贰个类。

  • Descriptor—Descriptors are defined attributes that describe a
    characteristic value. For example, a descriptor might specify a
    human-readable description, an acceptable range for a
    characteristic’s value, or a unit of measure that is specific to a
    characteristic’s value.
    讲述符——描述符是描述特征值的定义属性。例如:描述符大概能够钦点多个生人可读的叙说,特征值的可接受范围,或特征值特有的单位

  • Service—A service is a collection of characteristics. For example,
    you could have a service called “Heart Rate Monitor” that includes
    characteristics such as “heart rate measurement.” You can find a
    list of existing GATT-based profiles and services on
    bluetooth.org.
    劳动——服务是3个特点的集纳。例如:你能够使用二个称呼“心跳检查和测试器”的劳务,当中囊括“心跳度量”等个性。你能够在bluetooth.org上找到3个早就存在的根据GATT的安顿文件和劳务的列表

Android
Bluetooth Low
Energy

4.老是在其他装备上点名的sockets

关门客户端app

Once your app has finished using a BLE device, it should call close() so
the system can release resources appropriately:
一旦你的应用程序达成使用BLE设备,它应当调用close(),以便系统能够正确释放能源:

public void close() {
    if (mBluetoothGatt == null) {
        return;
    }
    mBluetoothGatt.close();
    mBluetoothGatt = null;
}

后记:本文翻译自google开发者网站。链接如下:
https://developer.android.google.cn/guide/topics/connectivity/bluetooth-le.html
欢迎转发,但请尊重俺工作,留下本文后记
作者:Jaesoon
邮箱:jayyuz@163.com
日期:2017-09-17

 

接口:

BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback
:用来提供LE扫描结果的回调接口

BluetoothProfile:Bluetooth
Profiles的公共APIs

BluetoothProfile.ServiceListener:蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )Profile
IPC client与service的三番五次和断开时的一个布告接口

Closing the Client App

Bluetooth Low
Energy vs. Classic
Bluetooth

  • Scan for other Bluetooth devices (including BLE devices).
  • Query the local Bluetooth adapter for paired Bluetooth devices.
  • Establish RFCOMM channels/sockets.
  • Connect to specified sockets on other devices.
  • Transfer data to and from other devices.
  • Communicate with BLE devices, such as proximity sensors, heart rate
    monitors, fitness devices, and so on.
  • Act as a GATT client or a GATT server (BLE).

How
different BLE packet types influence
throughput

蓝牙( Bluetooth® ) APIs 能够使得应用拥有上面效用:

 

For more information about Classic Bluetooth, see
the Bluetooth guide.
For more information about Bluetooth Low Energy, see the Bluetooth Low
Energy (BLE)
guide.

Daydream
controller : Comprehensive
guide

1.对此别的的Bluetooth设备的扫视(包含BLE设备)

http://www.apkmirror.com/apk/google-inc

3.建立RFCOMM channels/sockets.

How Does
Time Warping Work

类:

BluetoothA2dp:那些类提供控制蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )A2DP profile的公共APIs

BluetoothAdapter:代表当地设备的蓝牙5.0adapter.
BluetoothAssignedNumbers:蓝牙5.0分配号码

BluetoothClass:代表2个Bluetooth( Bluetooth® )类。它形容叙述了设备的相似特征(characteristics)和力量(capabilities)

BluetoothClass.Device:定义全体设备类的常量

BluetoothClass.Device.Major:定义全体首要配备类的常量

BluetoothClass.Service:定义全部服务类的常量

BluetoothDevice:代表2个远道Bluetooth设备

=============================================================================================

BluetoothGatt:蓝牙GATT
Profile的公共APIs

BluetoothGattCallback:这几个抽象类用于落到实处蓝牙5.0Gatt回调

BluetoothGattCharacteristic:代表2个Bluetooth( Bluetooth® )GATT Characteristic.

                                              贰个GATT
Characteristic是用来组织三个GATT
service,BluetoothGattService的基本数据成分

BluetoothGattDescriptor:代表一个蓝牙( Bluetooth® )GATT Descriptor.

                                           GATT Descriptor包涵三个GATT
characteristic,BluetoothGattCharacteristic的额外音讯和属性.

Classes


BluetoothA2dp This class provides the public APIs to control the Bluetooth A2DP profile. 
BluetoothAdapter Represents the local device Bluetooth adapter. 
BluetoothAssignedNumbers Bluetooth Assigned Numbers. 
BluetoothClass Represents a Bluetooth class, which describes general characteristics and capabilities of a device. 
BluetoothClass.Device Defines all device class constants. 
BluetoothClass.Device.Major Defines all major device class constants. 
BluetoothClass.Service Defines all service class constants. 
BluetoothDevice Represents a remote Bluetooth device. 
BluetoothGatt Public API for the Bluetooth GATT Profile. 
BluetoothGattCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothGatt callbacks. 
BluetoothGattCharacteristic Represents a Bluetooth GATT Characteristic

A GATT characteristic is a basic data element used to construct a GATT service,BluetoothGattService

BluetoothGattDescriptor Represents a Bluetooth GATT Descriptor

GATT Descriptors contain additional information and attributes of a GATT characteristic,BluetoothGattCharacteristic

BluetoothGattServer Public API for the Bluetooth GATT Profile server role. 
BluetoothGattServerCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothGattServer callbacks. 
BluetoothGattService Represents a Bluetooth GATT Service

Gatt Service contains a collection of BluetoothGattCharacteristic, as well as referenced services. 

BluetoothHeadset Public API for controlling the Bluetooth Headset Service. 
BluetoothHealth Public API for Bluetooth Health Profile. 
BluetoothHealthAppConfiguration The Bluetooth Health Application Configuration that is used in conjunction with the BluetoothHealthclass. 
BluetoothHealthCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothHealth callbacks. 
BluetoothManager High level manager used to obtain an instance of an BluetoothAdapter and to conduct overall Bluetooth Management. 
BluetoothServerSocket A listening Bluetooth socket. 
BluetoothSocket A connected or connecting Bluetooth socket. 

BluetoothGattServer:BluetoothGATT Profileserver角色的公共APIs.

BluetoothGattServerCallback:那么些抽象类用于落到实处BluetoothGattServer回调.

BluetoothGattService:代表三个蓝牙5.0( Bluetooth® )GATT Service.

================================================================================

BluetoothHeadset:控制蓝牙5.0动铁耳机(Headset)服务的公共API.

BluetoothHealth:蓝牙Health
Profile的公共API.

BluetoothHealthAppConfiguration:The
Bluetooth Health Application
Configuration(配置)用来与BluetoothHealth类结合.

BluetoothHealthCallback:用于落到实处BluetoothHealth回调的抽象类

BluetoothManager:用来得到BluetoothAdapter的实例的企管者,实行完美的蓝牙( Bluetooth® )管理

BluetoothServerSocket:三个监听蓝牙5.0的socket

BluetoothSocket:二个已连接或正在连接的蓝牙5.0socket.

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